# Difference between X7R, X5R, X8R, Z5U,Y5V, X7S, C0G Capacitor dielectrics

Ceramic capacitors are broadly categorized into 4 classes based on the dielectrics used in them,

**Class 1****Class 2****Class 3****Class 4**

Class 3 and Class 4 capacitors are not widely used and hence have not been standardized.

**Class 1 Capacitors : **

Class 1 capacitors have following characteristics,

Their capacitance varies linearly with temperature**Linear temperature coefficient :**Their capacitance does not depend on the applied voltage**No Voltage dependency :**They do not suffer significant aging process due to para electric materials used in manufacturing**No Aging :**Have significantly low electrical losses compared to Class 2 capacitors**No electrical losses :**Due to the above properties they are used in applications like resonant circuits, PLL and Oscillators.**Used in High Q filters :****Have high stability and accuracy**

They use a 3 digit notation to indicate the dielectric used in them according to EIA RS-198 standard

**C0G**

**| | |**

**| | |– Tolerance**

**| |—- Multiplier**

**|—— Coeffcient**

So according to the above table,

When manufacturer says that this is a **X7R** capacitor, it means that the capacitor can operate from –**55** degrees centigrade to +**125**** **degrees centigrade temperature and the capacitance of the capacitor will not vary more or less than **15%** from its nominal value specified.

Similarly, When manufacturer says that this is a **Y5V **capacitor, it means that the capacitor can operate from -30 degrees centigrade to +85 degrees centigrade temperature and the capacitance of the capacitor will not increase more than **22%** and not decrease below **82%** from its nominal value.

Most commonly used capacitor dielectrics are **X7R,X8R,X5R,Y5V,Z5U,X7S**.

Although Class 1 capacitors have more advantages than Class 2 capacitors, I encounter more X7R and X5R capacitors on day to day basis than C0G capacitors.